Taj Mahal is no just a moseloum but it has a huge complex which can be divided in 5 sections.
- Moonlight Garden to the north of river Yamuna
- Mausoleum, Mosque and Jawab are on Riverfront Terrace or base
- There is Charbag Garden encompasses pavilions
- The Jilaukhana has the accommodation for the tomb attendants and two subsidiary tomb
- The Taj Ganji, which is actually a neighboring bazaar (Market).
Charbag and Moonlight Garden
The concept of Heavenly garden was imported from Persia by Mughal in form of Timurid Garden. This concept has strong symbolic and religious meaning.
The garden has water channels which meets on one end forming the majestic fountain. The water channels are the illusory form of paradise rivers which source at a central mountain.
Gardens are divided into 4 different parts and meets at a center point giving them the name Charbagh (4 Gardens). There are flowerbeds along the flagstones making the gardens more Enchanting. The main moselum stands just at the edge of these gardens.
Originally, there were trees of Fruits, flowerbeds, paved pathways and water fountain in middle during Shah Jahan’s time. Shah Jahan created this paradise around the tomb of her beloved wife Mumtaj Mahal. The gardens were remodeled during British era leaving with present look. So the trees, woods, plants were replaced with grass, flowers and small plants giving it present day look.
These gardens are the the replica of that oasis as mention in Scriptures. Canals are the reflection of rivers in paradise and represents the water, milk, wine and honey.
The Taj Ganji was originally a market nearby Taj complex. Some remains and traces of this complex can still be found in nearby market today.
The Mouseloum, Mosque and it’s jawab is situated on the Riverfront. Taj Mahal is situated on southern part of river and just opposite of it , there is the northern Entry gate. The Northern Entry gate is made of Red sandstone with big Iwan for entry.
The Taj Mahal is at the bank of Yamuna river. The Taj Mahal has the wooden foundation or base It was a huge obstacle for Mughal to stabilize the sand so it can sustain the weight of entire structure.The mud was extremely wobbling due to high flow of water and saturation.
The deep wells were dug and were filled with rubble, iron, mortar and debris. After this the foundation is supported by huge wooden slabs on these deep wells.
These slabs worked as pillars for the entire monument. The water of Yamuna provided the necessary amount of water to survive the wooden slabs and made the foundation stand till today.
Wooden part of foundation is just below the Yamuna river providing the necessary strength to bear the structure weight. As per survey and Studies of ASI- Archaeological Survey of India, The Ebony woods were used for the foundation of the monument.
First the terrace was completed on which the Taj Mahal, The mosque and the Jawab is situated.