Taj Mahal is one of the UNESCO World Heritage site, it is situated at the southern bank of Yamuan River. Taj Mahal has a foundation of Ebony timber slabs. Slabs may have started rottening as Minrates have shows signs of tilting. In reports, it has been presented that the Yamuna river basin is falling at a rate of around 1.5 m(5ft) per year threatening the Tomb of structure.
Not only the Lack of water but bacteria (worms) which breeds on Yamuna river are infesting on marble wall. These bacteria leave green black patches on floral and lattice work of marble.
India has witnessed massive industrialization in recent years and business have started drawing water from Yamuna and it is resulting in less water for foundation of Taj Mahal.
Due to this, the cracks have started appearing in main tomb and Minarets have also been started tilting outward faster.
Pollution has become the Major challenge for this scenic monument as it is discoloring the Taj Mahal outer structure. It is changing from White to yellow, brown and black. Pollution from Mathura Oil Refinery, Sewerage water and chemical from industries are being pumped in Yamuna river causing the massive damage to Site.
Industries have been set up on bank of Yamuna river across region. These industries releases the pollutants, soot particles and harmful gases which are causing the yellowing of marble of Taj Mahal.
Mathura Refinery is one of the principle threat to site. Mathura refinery releases Sulfur dioxide and Nitrogen dioxide along with fine particle detrimental gases. These gases reacts with water vapor in environment, condense them and fall along as acid rain. Acid rain due to Mathura refinery corroding the Taj Mahal and it’s outer layer has started peeling off from some places.
Nitrogen dioxide and Sulphur dioxide are the major gases which are discoloring the Taj Mahal and leaving the yellow color.
To protect and preserve this , The Indian Goverment has set up the Taj Trapezium Zone (TTZ) — a 10,400 square kilometre (4,000 square miles) area around the monument. There are strict emissions rules and standards in this Zone.
Due to the massive industrial enterprise , decreasing water level and huge population around the area , these efforts are failing to achieve desired results.
During the War in 1942, The Goverment erected the scaffolding to hide the structure in anticipation of air attacks by Japanese Air Force.
Same was done during the wars of India and Pakistan (1965 & 1971).